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Ett par intressanta artiklar om hur ocklusionsträning skapar ett lägre genuttryck av Myostatin genom att öka genuttryck för bl.a. Follistatin, Follistatin-like 3, Activin IIb .
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Mar;44(3):406-12. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318233b4bc.
Strength training with blood flow restriction diminishes myostatin gene expression.
Laurentino GC1, Ugrinowitsch C, Roschel H, Aoki MS, Soares AG, Neves M Jr, Aihara AY, Fernandes Ada R, Tricoli V.
LAURENTINO, G. C., C. UGRINOWITSCH, H. ROSCHEL, M. S. AOKI, A. G. SOARES, M. NEVES JR, A. Y. AIHARA, A. DA
ROCHA CORREA FERNANDES, and V. TRICOLI. Strength Training with Blood Flow Restriction Diminishes Myostatin Gene
Expression. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 406412, 2012. Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine whether the
similar muscle strength and hypertrophy responses observed after either low-intensity resistance exercise associated with moderate blood
flow restriction or high-intensity resistance exercise are associated with similar changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of
selected genes involved in myostatin (MSTN) signaling. Methods: Twenty-nine physically active male subjects were divided into three
groups: low-intensity (20% one-repetition maximum (1RM)) resistance training (LI) (n = 10), low-intensity resistance exercise associated
with moderate blood flow restriction (LIR) (n = 10), and high-intensity (80% 1RM) resistance exercise (HI) (n = 9). All of the
groups underwent an 8-wk training program. Maximal dynamic knee extension strength (1RM), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA),
MSTN, follistatin-like related genes (follistatin (FLST), follistatin-like 3 (FLST-3)), activin IIb, growth and differentiation factorassociated
serum protein 1 (GASP-1), and MAD-related protein (SMAD-7) mRNA gene expression were assessed before and after training.
Results: Knee extension 1RM significantly increased in all groups (LI = 20.7%, LIR = 40.1%, and HI = 36.2%). CSA increased in
both the LIR and HI groups (6.3% and 6.1%, respectively). MSTN mRNA expression decreased in the LIR and HI groups (45% and
41%, respectively). There were no significant changes in activin IIb (P 9 0.05). FLST and FLST-3 mRNA expression increased in all
groups from pre- to posttest (P G 0.001). FLST-3 expression was significantly greater in the HI when compared with the LIR and LI
groups at posttest (P = 0.024 and P = 0.018, respectively). GASP-1 and SMAD-7 gene expression significantly increased in both the
LIR and HI groups. Conclusions: We concluded that LIR was able to induce gains in 1RM and quadriceps CSA similar to those
observed after traditional HI. These responses may be related to the concomitant decrease in MSTN and increase in FLST isoforms,
GASP-1, and SMAD-7 mRNA gene expression. Key Words: RESISTANCE TRAINING, SKELETAL MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY,
MUSCLE BIOPSY, VASCULAR OCCLUSION, HYPOXIA
Artikel om myostatin suppression hos en patient med INCLUSION BODY MYOSITIS.
Biol Sport. 2014 Jun; 31(2): 121124. Published online 2014 Apr 5. doi: 10.5604/20831862.1097479
BLOOD FLOW RESTRICTED RESISTANCE TRAINING ATTENUATES MYOSTATIN GENE EXPRESSION IN A PATIENT WITH INCLUSION BODY MYOSITIS
AUTHORS: Santos A.R.1#, Neves Jr. M.T.2#, Gualano B.1,2, Laurentino G.C.1, Lancha Jr A.H.1, Ugrinowitsch C.1, Lima F.R.2, Aoki M.S.3
ABSTRACT: Inclusion body myositis is a rare idiopathic inflammatory myopathy that produces extreme muscle weakness. Blood flow restricted resistance training has been shown to improve muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in inclusion body myositis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a resistance training programme on the expression of genes related to myostatin (MSTN) signalling in one inclusion body myositis patient. Methods: A 65-year-old man with inclusion body myositis underwent blood flow restricted resistance training for
12 weeks. The gene expression of MSTN, follistatin, follistatin-like 3, activin II B receptor, SMAD-7, MyoD, FOXO-3, and MURF-2 was quantified. Results: After 12 weeks of training, a decrease (25%) in MSTN mRNA level was observed, whereas follistatin and follistatin-like 3 gene expression increased by 40% and 70%, respectively. SMAD-7 mRNA level was augmented (20%). FOXO-3 and MURF-2 gene expression increased by 40% and 20%, respectively.
No change was observed in activin II B receptor or MyoD gene expression. Conclusions: Blood flow restricted resistance training attenuated MSTN gene expression and also increased expression of myostatin endogenous inhibitors. Blood flow restricted resistance training evoked changes in the expression of genes related to MSTN signalling pathway that could in part explain the muscle hypertrophy previously observed in a patient with inclusion body myositis.
Artikel med metaanalys kring rehabilitering med låga vikter kombinerat med ocklusionsträning.
Slutsatsen är att det är effektivare än rehabilitering med endast låga vikter.
ReviewBlood flow restriction training in clinical musculoskeletal rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysisLuke Hughes, Bruce Paton, Ben Rosenblatt, Conor Gissane, Stephen David Patterson
Background and objective Low-load exercise training with blood flow restriction (BFR) can increase muscle strength and may offer an effective clinical musculoskeletal (MSK) rehabilitation tool. The aim of this review was to systematically analyse the evidence regarding the effectiveness of this novel training modality in clinical MSK rehabilitation.
Design This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed literature examining BFR training in clinical MSK rehabilitation (Research Registry; researchregistry91).
Data sources A literature search was conducted across SPORTDiscus (EBSCO), PubMed and Science Direct databases, including the reference lists of relevant papers. Two independent reviewers extracted study characteristics and MSK and functional outcome measures. Study quality and reporting was assessed using the Tool for the assEssment of Study qualiTy and reporting in EXercise.
Eligibility Search results were limited to exercise training studies investigating BFR training in clinical MSK rehabilitation, published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal in English.
Results Twenty studies were eligible, including ACL reconstruction (n=3), knee osteoarthritis (n=3), older adults at risk of sarcopenia (n=13) and patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (n=1). Analysis of pooled data indicated low-load BFR training had a moderate effect on increasing strength (Hedges g=0.523, 95%?CI 0.263 to 0.784, p<0.001), but was less effective than heavy-load training (Hedges g=0.674, 95%?CI 0.296 to 1.052, p<0.001).
Conclusion Compared with low-load training, low-load BFR training is more effective, tolerable and therefore a potential clinical rehabilitation tool. There is a need for the development of an individualised approach to training prescription to minimise patient risk and increase effectiveness.
Optimizing strength training for hypertrophy: A periodization of classic resistance training and blood-flow restriction training
Fulltext länk http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4373
Tillgänglig från: 2016-03-08
Examensarbete skrivet av Cortobius, Daniel och Westblad, Niklas. Handledare Psilander, Niklas (Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap).
The main aim of this study was to investigate if a combination of classic resistance training and blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRE) training would result in greater increases in quadriceps muscle growth compared with other strength training studies. The second aim was to investigate if there would be any difference in muscle hypertrophy between men and women after the training intervention.
Twenty untrained subjects (10 males and 10 female) were recruited to participate in a 10-week unilateral resistance training intervention. Sixteen subjects completed the training intervention. After two familiarization sessions subjects performed three sessions per week in leg press and leg extension, except for week 4 and 8 were subjects performed five BFRE training sessions Monday to Friday. All subjects performed a one repetition maximum test in leg press and leg extension pre and post the training intervention. Ultrasound screening was performed pre and post training intervention to measure muscle thickness in m. vastus lateralis (VL).
The 10-week intervention resulted in a significant increase of VL muscle thickness by 15,1 % ± 7,6 (p ? 0,01). Both men and women increased in VL muscle thickness, men (n=7) by 15,4 % ± 9,3 (p ? 0,01) and women (n=9) by 14,8 % ± 6,0 (p ? 0,01), with no difference between genders. Maximal strength increased for the entire group in the leg press by 59,1 % ± 27,4 (p ? 0,01) and in the leg extension by 19,8 % ± 13,1 (p ? 0,01). Men had an increase of 58,1 % ± 18,0 (p ? 0,01) and women with 60,3 % ± 32,8 (p ? 0,01) in the leg press. In the leg extension women and men increased their maximal strength by 23,3 % ± 7,4 (p ? 0,01) respectively 17,0 % ± 14,4 (p = 0,051).
Our unique training protocol resulted in a superior increase in muscle growth in comparison with most other strength training studies. Our result can be converted to an increase of 17,3 % (0,25 % per day) in VL muscle CSA, which is much greater than the mean increase of 0,11 % per day reported in a large meta-analysis (Wernbom, Augustsson & Thomeé 2007).
Nedan är ett par Opinion articles som finns att läsa i sin helhet via länkarna.
Front. Physiol., 10 September 2013 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2013.00249
Blood flow restriction pressure recommendations: a tale of two cuffs
Jeremy P. Loenneke1*, Christopher A. Fahs2, Lindy M. Rossow2, Robert S. Thiebaud1, Kevin T. Mattocks3, Takashi Abe4 and Michael G. Bemben1
Front. Physiol., 04 October 2012 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2012.00392
Blood flow restriction: how does it work?
Jeremy P. Loenneke, Takashi Abe, Jacob M. Wilson, Carlos Ugrinowitsch and Michael G. Bemben
En väldigt intressant snabb genomgång av hur ocklusionsträning troligtvis fungerar. Man diskuterar metabol stress “metabolic overload (i.e., depletion of phosphocreatine stores and decreases in muscle pH) Och hur detta försätter musklerna i samma situation som vid kraftig belastning. Det har även visat på minskat mRNA genuttryck för MURF-1, atrogin, och myostatin. Det tas även upp studier som har visat på positiva effekter när man strypt det venösa flödet men inte utfört något fysiskt ansträngande.